Mediation is a voluntary and confidential process whereby an independent neutral third party assists participants to resolve their dispute by mutual agreement. It is a very different process to litigation or arbitration, and can be a highly effective and cost-efficient method of alternative dispute resolution.

Six Pump Court mediators are fully accredited and insured, with experience in a wide variety of mediation disciplines including civil and commercial, family, workplace and community mediation.

Grant Armstrong and Nicholas Baldock are senior barristers whose mediation and litigation practices cover complex financial services disputes, personal injury, clinical negligence claims and insurance / reinsurance disputes.


With members based in London, Singapore, Hong Kong, Dublin and Australia, Six Pump Court is in a strong position to advise international clients in all areas of arbitration, both domestic and international.

Members of Chambers have acted as Counsel and Arbitrators in international arbitrations in Beijing, Dubai, Dublin, Hong Kong, Lagos, London, New York, Shanghai, New Delhi, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Stockholm and Washington D.C. under the Rules of various international institutions including AAA/ICDR, AIAC, CAS, CIArb, CIETAC, HKIAC, ICC, LCIA, LMAA, LME, SCMA and PIAC. This experience extends to ad hoc arbitrations under the UNCITRAL Rules and the CIArb Rules, and to experience in arbitration – related litigation in national courts.

Members have acted in a broad range of international arbitral disputes including general commercial disputes; offshore oil and gas ventures (joint production and joint operating agreements); mining, natural resources, construction & infrastructure, banking; financial services, joint ventures in all manner of enterprises, online dispute resolution; art law; commodity trading including in metals and ores, cotton, coal, oil and gas, palm oil, foodstuffs,; intellectual property, insurance and reinsurance; shipping including all types of traditional maritime disputes, ship sale and purchase and ship conversion contracts for use of vessels as FPSO’s .

Chambers can provide advisory and expert witness expertise in areas such as treaty law and practice in relation to international investment treaty disputes under Bilateral Investment Treaties and Multi-Lateral Treaties; evidence in treaty arbitrations; and advice in relation to the law and practice of treaties, the polar regions, international environmental law and law of the sea.

A full list of our Arbitrators and Mediators can be found here

The dedicated clerk for the international arbitration members is Ryan Barrow

Taxi Licensing

The UK’s taxi drivers are some of the most regulated in the world, and the laws surrounding the licenses are complex and highly specialised.

Our Licensing barristers represent licensing authorities including some of the largest local authorities outside London in the area of Hackney Carriage and Private Hire Vehicle licensing. Six Pump Court represented the Licensed Taxi Drivers Association in its opposition to City of Westminster proposals to create a taxi-free zone in part of the West End.

We also act for individual and corporate licensees in all areas of taxi licensing, including licence suspension and revocation appeals to all areas of criminal enforcement. We can help with a wide range of issues that arise with an individual’s taxi license. Our barristers can assist with appeals against a refusal to grant a license, or against the suspension or removal of existing licenses.

Recent examples of our work include:-

  • R (on the application of London Taxi Drivers Association) v London Borough of Camden dealt with the distinctions between black cabs and mini cabs and their treatment in a major redevelopment in the Tottenham Court Road area.
  • Advising Hackney Carriage drivers on challenging the grant of a PHV operator’s licence to a company located at a rail station near their rank.
  • Advising Hackney Carriage drivers on a challenge to the authorities decision to include certain conditions on their drivers’ licences.
  • Representing a PHV driver in his appeal against a local authority decision to revoke his licence as a result of disclosure of a serious criminal allegation.
  • Representing a local authority defending an appeal to the crown court by a Hackney carriage driver whose licence had been revoked.

Sexual Entertainment Venues

Our Licensing barristers have experience advising and representing sexual entertainment venue operators and licensing authorities on applications/variations and renewals in respect of these types of premises.
Such applications often attract considerable local opposition and as they require renewal on a yearly basis, the operator’s license is often in jeopardy from such representations or even a change in policy (national and local).

Recent examples of our work in this area include advising a local authority licensing committee on renewal applications for SEV’s.

Gambling and Gaming

Gaming licensing is covered by the Gaming Act 2005, although issues may also arise in relation to gaming premises under the 2003 Licensing Act. Businesses involved in gambling are placed under a number of obligations and responsibilities, overseen by the Gambling Commission which is the licensing authority in this area . The regulatory framework covers mainly casinos and bookmakers, but also other businesses, mainly within the hospitality and entertainment industries, which offer on-site gambling facilities as a profitable supplement to the services they offer.

Obtaining a license involves undergoing a number of strict checks to ensure that a business can be trusted to deal honestly and responsibly with customers and to meet all the obligations and requirements that come with providing gambling services to the public.

The terms of the gambling license are many and often complex, and are rigorously enforced. If you are a business with a gambling element and are facing enforcement action from the Gambling Commission for failing to comply with the complex legislation that surrounds this area, it is highly important that you seek expert legal help. Licensing barristers at Six Pump Court can offer a comprehensive service whatever premises or licensing issues arise.


A thorough and rigorous system of licensing is necessary and those who own firearms find themselves subject to strict safety and security conditions. If your licence is under threat, our professional firearms licensing barristers can advise on the best course of action to take to protect your licence.

Those who wish to own or acquire firearms are subject to strict checks to ensure that they are a sensible, law-abiding person who can be trusted to use guns responsibly and for only legitimate purposes. The Police must be satisfied that no danger is posed to the public, and this must be backed up by the word of two referees. Once a license is obtained, strict conditions such as observing the proper hunting seasons must be abided by and adequate steps must be taken to ensure weapons are secure and cannot fall into the possession of anybody less responsible without a great deal of difficulty.

Due to the importance of ensuring that only safe pairs of hands have access to firearms, these conditions are enforced rigorously. There are regular checks to ensure that guns are being kept in an adequately secure manner, and checks into a licensee’s suitability may be repeated when applying for renewal.

It is easy to fall foul of firearms legislation even if it’s only the result of a minor one-off slip-up, and because of the strict way the license is enforced it is also easy to get caught. The consequences can be serious and can result in heavy fines or even a prison sentence.

If you are facing allegations of firearms offences or failing to properly abide by the terms of your gun license, our firearms licensing barristers can help, whether the charges are small or large. Our licensing barristers have experience in all aspects including applications, variations and changes to existing licences and hearings and appeals.

Recent cases have included:-

  • Representing a defendant with extensive criminal convictions in his application for a firearms license which was granted despite appeal from the local police force.
  • Representing a former police officer acquitted of serious violence and sexual offences but whose firearms licence was still taken from him.

Alcohol & Entertainment

There are a number of different kinds of license that might need to be obtained before providing alcohol to the public, depending on the situation and the nature of the business or organisation in question. Our experienced alcohol licensing barristers can advise on the most appropriate licence for your premises.

The main types of alcohol license are:

Premises License: These are for businesses and organisations that either sell alcohol or supply alcoholic drinks to patrons. This license is for those who do so on a permanent basis, rather than temporarily for a specific period or event.

Personal License: This is practically similar to a premises license, but tied to an individual instead of to the premises. It is for any individual who wishes either to supply alcohol on a regular, permanent basis or to authorise the sale of alcoholic drinks. It is essential for the Designated Premises Supervisor (DPS) to be a Personal license Holder.

Temporary Event Notice: This is essentially a temporary license for businesses, organisations or individuals who only want to supply alcohol for a limited time. Most commonly, it is used for one-off or limited-time events that include the supply or sale of alcohol in a location where this is not routinely done.

Club Premises Certificate: This is essentially a specialised form of the premises license. It is reserved for premises belonging to certain members clubs including working men’s clubs, organisations like the Royal British Legion, or some sports clubs. In some circumstances, businesses and even individuals may require a license in order to provide entertainment. Licenses are also most likely required by businesses and organisations that provide live dramatic or dance performances to audiences of more than 500 people, or live sports for spectators numbering over 1,000. Certain kinds of entertainment require licenses regardless of audience size, including film screenings and certain sports such as boxing and wrestling.

Our licensing law barristers can provide guidance on the legal issues and requirements surrounding licensing for the supply of alcohol and provision of entertainment. They can also assist with any difficulties experienced with existing licences. Our licensing barristers specialise in review hearings and appeals against decisions of the licensing sub-committee and can provide you with professional and reliable legal advice and representation.

Recent cases that our licensing barristers have been involved in include :

  • Successfully acting on behalf of a nightclub located in a city-centre impact zone against review proceedings brought by the police;
  • Representing the applicant for a licence in proceedings relating to the licensing of an open-air music festival, vigorously opposed by the police and local authority;
  • Successfully representing a restaurant in review proceedings brought by the local authority;
  • Acting on behalf of a multi-agency investigation unit, to successfully secure the removal of the premises licence for a business involved in employing an illegal worker. They had previously been banned from selling alcohol as a result of raids by the local authority and immigration authorities; and many other similar cases.

Competition Law

An increasingly wide variety of claims are being made in competition proceedings which might formerly only be made in other regulatory or civil proceedings. These can be regulatory claims involving disciplinary matters through to environmental issues connected with pollution and emissions. They may involve damages claims or claims for injunctive relief.

Our regulatory and competition law barristers advise and assist in claims involving the Chapter 1 prohibition, whether or not made in conjunction with Art.101, and in claims involving the Chapter 2 prohibition, whether or not in conjunction with Art.102. These have included matters involving core questions such as what is an ‘undertaking’, through to refusal to supply/‘essential facilities’ and the effect of international distribution agreements.

Chambers’ experience of regulatory issues brings our regulatory and competition law barristers into contact with the practice of a variety of competition regulators. Barristers at Six Pump Court are familiar with the rules governing different sectors, including Ofwat and ORR.

Our regulatory and competition law barristers are also familiar with related jurisdictional issues, mainly within the EU, and with specialist costs issues of concern to litigation funders, whether or not within the context of Group Litigation Order under CPR r.19.

Financial Conduct

Six Pump Court’s Financial Conduct Team draws together the collective and extensive experience of members of chambers in order to be able to provide advice, assistance and representation relating to all aspects of financial regulation and misfeasance, specifically:

Mis-selling of Financial Products and Fraud

Money-Laundering, Financial Controls, Bribery and Sanctions

Restraining and Recovering the Proceeds of Fraud

In-House Financial Investigations

Discipline of Financial Professionals

Dealing with Financial and Tax Authorities, their Investigations and their Prosecutions


Mis-selling of Financial Products and Fraud

Separate from but building upon our recognised work in Consumer Protection, especially Trading Standards, Six Pump Court has considerable experience in relation to the mis-selling of financial products, including acting in both civil and criminal proceedings in connection with alleged infringements of regulatory legislation such as the Consumer Credit Act 1974 and the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000.  We are especially known for our work on the mis-selling of Payment Protection Insurance (PPI), illegal money lending (loan sharking, with many cases undertaken for BIS’s National Illegal Money Lending Team) and collective investment schemes and we have advised upon the enforceability of interest rate swap agreements.

Most notably members of chambers acted for the prosecution of those involved with the ‘Credit Card Killer’ company which purported to be a debt purchase company using its knowledge of the Consumer Credit Act 1974 to buy debts from debtors, wrongfully benefiting to the extent of approaching £2 million (Birmingham City Council v Momentum Network Limited, Rankine and Rankine).

Our consumer credit work is by no means confined to contentious proceedings: we regularly offer businesses non-contentious advice, such as whether to change the location of a head office in light of amendment to the regulatory regime, as to the definition of a regulated agreement as applied to novel lending products and as to the applicability of consumer credit licensing to a financial product to be provided by a non-British lending institution.  Click here for more details of our Civil and Commercial Team’s Contract & Commercial Agreement work.

We also deal with the regulatory requirements for the protection of financial product consumers under legislation such as the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008, the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000 or the Electronic Money Regulations 2011, in particular with regard to pricing structures and the information that must be given to consumers about products and charging.  Our service extends to the area of civil enforcement in consumer cases such as applications made pursuant to Part 8 of the Enterprise Act 2002, for example action taken against a national car hire company in relation to the retention of credit card deposits from customers residing in foreign jurisdictions.  Members of chambers are conversant with the principles of financial regulation applied by regulators such as the Office of Fair Trading and the Financial Conduct Authority and with the impact of wider policies on the enforcement action taken by bodies such as local authorities.

Often the line between mis-selling and fraud is narrow and primarily located in the eye of the beholder.  Six Pump Court has extensive experience of criminal fraud prosecutions (click here for details).  Our Financial Conduct Team also undertakes civil fraud work, both in relation to establishing that conduct amounts to fraud and in relation to Restraining and Recovering the Proceeds of Fraud.

We give strategic advice to regulators and the regulated, just as we offer it in the wider non-financial regulatory context and we welcome appropriate Direct Public Access instructions.

Back to top


Money-Laundering, Financial Controls, Bribery and Sanctions

6 Pump Court has substantial experience of cases involving the requirements of anti-money laundering legislation and contraventions of the other financial controls over company and client money.  Our advice and assist assistance includes actions for recovery in such cases, whether it is sought by a client of a defaulting business or by the business itself against a defaulting employee.  For example, recent instructions involved allegations that the managing solicitors of a firm had diverted to their own benefits funds in office and client accounts, to the prejudice of both those owed money by the firm and of the firm itself.  Cases such as this are handled with discretion and sensitivity.

We have also advised upon the requirements for procedures and policies required to avoid breaches of the Bribery Act 2010 and upon whether proposed transactions would contravene sanctions imposed by UK legislation, EU directive and the United Nations.

Back to top


Restraining and Recovering the Proceeds of Fraud

Establishing liability to compensate for fraud or other financial misfeasance is little help if the money has forever gone.  So Six Pump Court assists with the restraint and recovery of proceeds, in the context of both criminal and civil proceedings against suspected wrongdoers.  Our experience under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 is extensive (click for details of our Confiscation and Asset Recovery Work in the criminal courts and related High Court work), and includes some highly complex and high value cases, for example the counterfeit footwear case of R v Braha in which members of Six Pump Court secured a confiscation order in the sum of £8 million

Members of chambers, drawing on Civil & Commercial, Regulatory and Family law groundings, are also experienced at advising in relation to issues of real and personal property ownership that arise in the context of these applications, for example, whether defendants or their spouses or others have beneficial interests in assets of which legal title is held by those who may not wholly or at all enjoy the beneficial rights or whether individuals involved in the running of a misfeasant company have benefited from the company’s misconduct in a manner which leaves them vulnerable to recovery from them personally.

Back to top


In-House Financial Investigations

Whether or not regulators or third parties are taking or threatening action, businesses suffering from financial irregularities, such as failures to adhere to in house financial recording procedures or the abuse of employee expense systems, often need to establish for their own purposes of the nature and extent of those irregularities and to do so in a manner later admissible in court and likely to withstand external scrutiny if needs be.  The 6 Pump Court Financial Conduct Team can help ensure that in-house investigations help, rather than inadvertently aggravate, the situation.

Especial focus is given to cases which involve potential breaches of regulatory requirements that are of general application and which may expose a business to further civil or criminal liability. We also have particular expertise in dealing with issues of confidentiality and data protection which may arise during investigation.  Besides advising on the conduct of the internal investigation itself, we can advise on the arrangements for any formal in-house proceedings or external legal action which may follow, whether that is instituted by the business itself against those responsible for the irregularities or by regulators or affected third parties against the business.

Back to top


Discipline of Financial Professionals

Six Pump Court’s Financial Conduct Team takes instructions for and against financial professionals, such as accountants, independent financial advisors and solicitors, facing disciplinary allegations of breaches of professional requirements.  Our extensive experience in acting for and against a wide range of regulators has equipped us well and we have particular experience in disciplinary matters involving the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, the Institute of Chartered Accountants, the Regulatory Decisions Committee of the Financial Conduct Authority and the Solicitors Regulation Authority.

Members of the Financial Conduct Team have experience of technical and complex national, international and multi-jurisdictional financial conduct issues and have undertaken in house placements with regulators such as the Financial Conduct Authority, the Serious Fraud Office and the Office of Fair Trading.

Aside from acting as advocates and advisors on behalf of parties to disciplinary proceedings, members of the Financial Conduct Team have acted in the role of adjudicator on behalf of the Financial Ombudsman Service and as legal advisors to disciplinary panels and we have been involved in reviewing and advising upon various codes of professional conduct and disciplinary procedures.

Whilst our Financial Conduct Team necessarily focuses on the position of financial professionals, our Employment Team offers a full Professional Discipline service regarding those professionals who are not financial professionals and a full employment law service regarding those who are. Our Civil & Commercial Team offers a full Companies and Partnerships service, extending to the fiduciary duties of individual directors and partners.

Back to top


Dealing with Financial and Tax Authorities, their Investigations and their Prosecutions

Six Pump Court have extensive experience of dealing with the full gamut of British financial and tax authorities, including:

  • the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA, previously the Financial Services Authority, FSA)
  • the Financial Ombudsman Service
  • the Serious Fraud Office (SFO)
  • HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC)
  • the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS)
  • BIS’s National Illegal Money Lending Team
  • the Office of Fair Trading (OFT)
  • Utility regulators, such as OFGEM

We can assist both at the investigative stage and at that of determining any penalty or prosecution.  We act either for persons facing action by the authorities or for the authorities themselves. Members of the Financial Conduct Team appear in the Tax Chambers of the First Tier Tribunal.

We also act in offshore matters, both for businesses and individuals based offshore but coming into contact with British authorities and for authorities outside Britain coming into contact with businesses or individuals here.

Back to top


More Planning & Environmental Resources

Articles and Comment

Environmental enforcement—looking ahead to 2016 (Jan 2016)
A look ahead to the likely developments in 2016 in the area of environmental enforcement.
Christopher Badger

Environmental enforcement—2015 in review (Jan 2016)
A look at the most significant developments that have affected the area of environmental enforcement in 2015.
Christopher Badger

The Autumn Statement for environment and energy lawyers (Nov 2015)
Richard Banwell and Christopher Badger contribute to an analysis of the most important features of the Autumn Statement 2015 for energy and environment lawyers in Lexis PSL expert analysis and industry comment.

Planning Permission Decision quashed due to apparent bias  (Oct 2015)
Commentary on Kelton v Wiltshire Council [2015] EWHC 2853 (Admin).
Stuart Jessop

Environmental Permit Revocation and Appeals to the Planning Inspectorate: a Case Note
(Oct 2015)
Commentary on a recent case in which he was Leading Counsel for a waste recycling operator. His commentary, provided here concerns the appeal in a case against a revocation notice by the Environment Agency of a waste transfer permit in respect of which the Agency is regulator.
Richard Barraclough QC

Planning Policy Under the New Government – a briefing (Oct 2015)
At a Westminster Briefing event entitled ‘Planning Policy under the new Government’ on 29th September, William Upton outlined the planning reforms currently underway and the direction of the new government’s planning policy.

Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment and Risk (Feb 2015)
This article published in the journal, Environmental Law and Management, analyses the Court of Appeal’s judgment in R (on the application of An Taisce) (The National Trust for Ireland) v Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change [2014] EWCA Civ 1111.
Frances Lawson

The EU Recommendation on Hydraulic Fracturing and it’s Implementation in the UK (Feb 2015)
This article analyses the legal and environmental issues surrounding the European Commission’s recent Recommendation regarding hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’). She also assesses the implications for its implementation in the UK and the government’s response.
Frances Lawson

Common Law Liability for Flood Damage (Sept 2014)
Paper on “Common law liabilities for flood damage: Flood me, Flood me not”  originally published in the UKELA’s e-law
William Upton

Costs and Landlords’ Liability in Nuisance: Coventry v Lawrence (July 2014)
This article, published in LexisNexis PSL, analyses the latest decision in Coventry v Lawrence which deals with the landlord’s potential liability in nuisance and the vexed question of the recovery of CFA uplifts and ATE insurance premiums.
William Upton

Coventry v Lawrence and the Law of Nuisance (March 2014)
This article in the ‘Environmental Law Monthly’, summarises and comments on the implications of the recent Supreme Court judgment in Coventry v Lawrence and comments on the wider implications for the law of nuisance and the remedies used to protect property rights.
Nicholas Baldock


Some of our Recent Notable Cases

R (on the application of Padden) v Maidstone Borough Council & Others (2014)
Judicial review of planning permission for extensive recreational fishing lake development involving retrospective application of planning permission where environmental impact assessment required. Planning permission was quashed.  This case has become one of the rare but important authorities on the law concerning retrospective planning permission. [2014] EWHC 51 (Admin).  Reported at  [2014] Env LR 20.

Koumis v Secretary of State and the London Borough of Enfield (2014) 
Successfully defended the London Borough of Enfield’s position in the Court of Appeal regarding whether a variation, or purported variation, under s.173A of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended) can render an already valid enforcement notice a nullity.
[2014] EWCA Civ 1723

Coventry v Lawrence (2014)
Seminal case on nuisance and planning law. A motorsport noise nuisance case, where the points of law of public interest includes the extent to which a planning permission may change the extent to which a common law claim can be brought in nuisance by a neighbour. This is an issue that has troubled lawyers for years.
[2014] UKSC 13.  Reported at [2014] 2 P & CR 2, [2014] 2 All ER 622

R (on the application of Nicholas Perry) v London Borough of Hackney and Newmark Properties Ltd and Sainsburys Properties Ltd (2014)
Challenge to grant of permission for mixed use development in Stoke Newington, but significant issue over confidentiality of viability assessments, disclosure and access to information. Also challenge to assessment of EIA screening and Heritage Assets. Challenged two grants of planning permission by the local authority for a large scale retail development and supermarket.
[2014] EWHC 3499 (Admin) and [2014] EWCA Civ 1372 Court of Appeal – on disclosure application

R (on the application of Mouring) v West Berkshire Council (2014) (no link available)
A local authority had failed to carry out the exercise that was essential in considering a warehouse development which fell within the scope of the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (England and Wales) Regulations 1999. The local authority should have appreciated that the development was capable at least of falling within sch.2 of the Regulations and thus required an environmental impact assessment.
[2014] EWHC 203 (Admin)

R (on the application of XPL Ltd) v Harlow District Council (2014) (no link available)
Breach of condition notice served on bus depot running scheduled bus services to prevent buses departing prior to 0800. Whether notice prohibited activities outside those prohibited by condition, whether interpretation against operator made site unworkable as a bus depot. Meaning of industrial and commercial activities.
[2014] EWHC 3860 (Admin)

R (on the application of A4 Recycling Ltd) v. Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government (2014)
Recycling business that had formerly only scrapped vehicles sought retrospective planning permission for uses on the site. Whether importing metal onto the site in a form other than vehicles was a new use. Whether Inspector entitled to judge as a matter of fact and degree if a use was immune from enforcement and had to be treated as a fallback position.
[2014] EWHC 2524 (Admin)